It is a great pleasure for me to speak here today at this conference, kindly hosted by De Nederlandsche Bank. The importance of collateral in the economy may have been neglected in earlier academic work, but has been well recognised lately. In his seminal work [ 3 ] on the topic John Geanakoplos says that:. Over time, as more people have been included in the process, punishment and reputation have been replaced by collateral. This enabled a proliferation of promises, but has led to a scarcity of collateral. Today, in my opening remarks I would like to consider one issue regarding collateral that was mentioned in that quote, namely the scarcity of eligible collateral. Collateral is sound if it guarantees a quasi-certain stream of revenues. During the crisis there has been a widespread flight to quality, out of certain asset classes, which used to be considered sound. Collateral scarcity is a somewhat more topical issue in the euro area than elsewhere.
Climate change and scarce resources
The free webtool will allow decision-makers from all over the world to see in real time the number of people suffering from water scarcity worldwide. The Water Scarcity Clock also gives users the ability to interactively explore water availability in affected parts of the world from to Users will be able to see which shares of the population live in areas with a water availability of less than m3, 1, m3, and 1, m3 per person.
According to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator , a country or region is said to experience water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1, m3 per person per year. At levels between 1,, m3, periodic or limited water shortages can be expected.
Scarcity effects on value: A quantitative review of the commodity theory literature Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Hospitality reflects the change in the “success rate” associated with a given factor when the average.
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Toward the end of World War II, while thousands of Europeans were dying of hunger, 36 men at the University of Minnesota volunteered for a study that would send them to the brink of starvation. Allied troops advancing into German-occupied territories with supplies and food were encountering droves of skeletal people they had no idea how to safely renourish, and researchers at the university had designed a study they hoped might reveal the best methods of doing so.
But first, their volunteers had to agree to starve. The physical toll on these men was alarming: their metabolism slowed by 40 percent; sitting on atrophied muscles became painful; though their limbs were skeletal, their fluid-filled bellies looked curiously stout. Though these odd behaviors were just a footnote in the original Minnesota study, to professor of economics Sendhil Mullainathan , who works on contemporary issues of poverty, they were among the most intriguing findings.
Mullainathan is not a psychologist, but he has long been fascinated by how the mind works.
From scarcity factor in emergency, this study analyzes the decision-making risk behaviors, then puts forward Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 30 November
The objective of this specific project conducted within WULCA working group was therefore to coordinate the consensuses building process and lead the scientific work into achieving a harmonized method for assessing water use in LCA, involving key method developers and stakeholders through an international collaborative effort. JLCA, The proposal was accepted by a panel of 48 LCA experts from academia, industry and governmental institutions during three international expert workshops held in Zurich, San Francisco and Tzukuba in One main limitation identified, in addition to the challenge associated with quantifying ecosystem water demand was that the DTA ratio similarly to CTA and WTA fails to represent the absolute water availability per unit of surface.
It only focuses on a metric relative to the use, resulting in loss of information. For example, a DTA ratio of 0. This sometimes leads to arid areas showing less scarcity than known water-abundant regions and the relevance of this for LCA application can be questionable. The process first used a pre-selection criterion to evaluate the relevance of each indicator with respect to the question to be answered. Non relevant indicators were filtered out from the second step DTAA. It assesses the potential of water deprivation, to either humans or ecosystems, building on the assumption that the less water remaining available per area, the more likely another user will be deprived.
The indicator is limited to a range from 0.
The Science of Scarcity
You meet this person when you are out or even online. It all starts off well enough but after a period of time the sparks between you seems to die. For the purpose of this discussion we shall adopt the following definition of Scarcity to wit:. When it comes to relationships that something or goods can translate to love, affection or sex.
This pattern tends to result in assortative mating, as most dating and In each case, factors were experimental condition (control vs. scarce.
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Why You Should Try to Be a Little More Scarce
The U. High Commissioner for Refugees reported that 1. One historic storm in one place over the course of one day.
This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage impacts due to low availability per capita and stress impacts due to high consumption relative to availability which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively.
While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability.
The climate crisis, migration, and refugees
Emails, tweets, Slack messages — you name it — being affable and amenable is kind of my thing. And while conventional wisdom tells us we should eagerly embrace every opportunity that comes our way, playing a little hard to get has its advantages. Cialdini said. So if you find yourself becoming overzealous over every little opportunity that comes your way, here are a few ways to keep things in balance:.
Appearing readily available can work against you, according to Jeremy Nicholson , a social psychologist who focuses on decision-making, social influence and relationship dynamics. All the more reason to play it cool.
Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much () presented years of the scope of that time-limited task gets slighted, ignored, or put off to a later date. To rule out other factors, the researchers posed nonfinancial questions with small.
Libya is a country that suffers from water scarcity. The situation has become more problematic due to continued population growth, low rainfall and higher water demand for agriculture and industrial use. Despite these efforts, the problem of water deficits continues, due to ever increasing water demands. In addition, maintaining the water quality standard is still an issue in the country. The current policy of becoming self-sufficient in food, resulted in over-exploitation of fossil groundwater resources for irrigation and yet more depletion of water resources, since most of the country’s groundwater resources are non-renewable.
This led to the implementation of appropriate actions towards i reconsideration of agricultural water extractions, ii treating water that was previously thought to be unusable, such as desalination of seawater, brackish waters, and wastewater, and iii better water management practices. As part of the course, which took place from 6 — 19 June at IHE Delft, the Netherlands, participants were trained in the following topics:.